The Reflection of the Javanese Cultural Concepts in the Politeness of Javanese
AbstractEvery language may have some entities which may not be owned by another language. The uniqueness of a language is strongly influenced by the culture of its native speakers. Therefore, languages vary cross-culturally. I strongly believe that the way the Javanese people (one of the Indonesian ethnic groups) express politeness is also influenced by the Javanese culture. This article tries to examine the reflection of some concepts of Javanese cultures such as: tata krama, andhap-asor, and tanggap ing sasmita (the language styles, humbling oneself while exalting others, and being able to catch the hidden meaning). The approaches used in this study are based on politeness theory, e.g. Brown and Levinson (1987), Leech (1983), Grice (1975, 1981), and Lakoff (1973, 1990). Finally, this study proves that the forms and the politeness strategies used in Javanese are really bound by the Javanese concepts. As a result, it is almost impossible to conduct politeness in Javanese without comprehending and applying those cultural concepts.
Brown, P., & Levinson, S. (1987). Politeness: Some universal in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Errington, J. (1988). Structure and style in Javanese: A semiotic view of linguistic etiquette. Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Press.
Grice, H. P. (1975). Logic and conversation. In P. Cole, & J. L. Morgan (Eds.), Journal of syntax and semantics, 3, (pp. 41-58). New York: Academic Press.
Grice, H. P. (1981). Presupposition and conversational implicature. In P. Cole (Ed.), Radical pragmatics (pp. 183-198). New York: Academic Press.
Lakoff, R. T. (1973). The logic of politeness: Or, minding your p’s and q’s. Paper presented at the ninth regional meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society, Chicago, U.S.A.
Lakoff, R. T. (1990). Talking power: The politic of language in our lives. Glasgow: Herper Collins.
Leech, G. N. (1983). The principles of pragmatics. New York.: Longman.
Nasr, R. T. (1983). The essentials of linguistic science. London: Longman.
Partana, P. (2006). Tindak tutur tak langsung bahasa Jawa: Studi metapesan pada masyarakat tutur Jawa di Surakarta (Indirect speech acts of Javanese: The study of meta-meaning on the Javanese speakers in Surakarta). Linguistika Jawa, 2(1), 1-13.
Poedjosoedarmo, S. (1979). Tingkat tutur bahasa Jawa (The speech levels of Javanese). Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa DEPDIKBUD (Centre for Language Development and Maintenance of The Department of Education and Culture).
Uhlenbeck, E. M. (1970). The use of respect forms in Javanese. In S. A. Wurm, & D. C. Laycock (Eds.), Pacific linguistic studies in honour of Arthur Capell (pp. 441-466). Canbera: ANU.